It is only comparatively recently that the present configuration of independent states in the Gulf was established. This helps to explain the sensitivities of them all to the issue of external intervention in the area.
With new amendments to Russia’s Law on Citizenship, the Kremlin is establishing a legal pretext to threaten or actually to use force based on a claim to protect Russian citizens resident in neighbouring states.
As Russia’s resurgence in the Middle East continues and Moscow hones its position as a regional diplomatic arbiter, Russia’s partnership with the Kurdistan Regional Government will likely continue to strengthen in the months and years to come.
High-level presidential meetings, increasing rhetoric from the Kremlin and the growing use of Russia’s soft power levers all indicate that Moscow is adapting its approach to Belarus amid a changing political climate.