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In May 2015, the Italian Ministry of Defence published its White Paper for International Security and Defence. In this article, Andrea Gilli, Alessandro R Ungaro and Alessandro Marrone examine the important domestic changes outlined in the document, including those made to the policy-making processes and the internal discussion about strategic issues. The document restricts Italy’s focus to the Euro-Mediterranean region but sees a more active role for its armed forces – if and when necessary. European co-operation is also prioritised, especially with regards to military technology and procurement. It also puts forward reform of the defence ministry aimed at shaping an integrated approach and promotes further jointness, starting from the strengthening of the Joint Operational Command that will take responsibility for any future military operation.