Russia's ambitions in Africa
But the reputation of Russia's project in Africa appears to have been tarnished. "Russia's got very little to offer African countries economically," said Ramani, associate fellow at the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI). "Russian arms have proven themselves to be less than effective in the Ukraine war and also Western sanctions are coming with those come with a big risk." Coupled with the exit from the Black Sea Grain deal, "the loss of Russian influence in Africa is due to many factors."