Liz Truss’s pledge on defence would cost £157bn

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The report’s author, Professor Malcolm Chalmers, deputy director-general of the institute, said that to spend 3 per cent effectively, there would need to be a “significant increase” in the size of the front line, both in terms of numbers of troops and platforms.

Read the report: From Famine to Feast? The Implications of 3% for the UK Defence Budget, by Malcolm Chalmers, 2 September 2022