The UK has two options for modernising its armour: developing a Challenger 3 or procuring Leopard 2. The latter is an assured capability that will likely prove cheaper over the life of the programme. The former is risky but offers the UK an opportunity to develop valuable intellectual property.
The risk of nuclear war between India and Pakistan presents dangerous global implications and should be considered as a serious threat, particularly since Pakistan’s acquisition of the short-range Nasr missile. Quite apart from the enormous human cost, there would also be significant environmental and migratory consequences.