In this latest standoff, the valley is believed to also be home to large stockpiles of weapons. Fighters based in the valley were meant to have disbanded over the past 20 years and hand over their arms. "But there are still stockpiles there," says Dr Giustozzi. "Afghan officials with connections to Panjshir also moved more guns there because they were worried about presidents' Karzai and Ghani, but in the end it was the Taliban they needed to be worried about."
Dr Antonio Giustozzi
Senior Research Fellow