In 1947, Pakistan’s army inherited the default position and strategy of British India in opposing Russian influence and inroads into Afghanistan and Central Asia. Now, for the first time in 200 years, they have reversed the old British policy of confronting the Russians for control over Central Asia. Pakistan’s army now sees the Russians as their strategic partners.
By 2008, it was clear that Britain had got Basra wrong. Ten years on from the invasion, an insider provides a first-hand account of what the mistakes were, and what can be learnt for future operations.