Main Image Credit A US Air Force F-15 approaches the refueling boom of a tanker aircraft during a routine patrol over northern Iraq in support of Operation Northern Watch, January 1999. Northern Watch was the enforcement operation of the no-fly-zone over northern Iraq. Cou
No-fly zones have become a popular foreign policy tool over the past two decades, but they are rarely effective. In fact, no-fly zones are generally used for solving political rather than military–strategic problems.