RUSI JournalVOLUME 167ISSUE 4/5members only

Why Did Rebuilding the Afghan and Iraqi Armies Fail?

Trillions of dollars and enormous effort did not bring about the Western liberal peace in Afghanistan. Kabul airport during the evacuation, August 2021. Courtesy of US Air Force/Scott Hardman

Western armies struggled to grasp the social, political and historical context.

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