The 2020 UK PONI Papers examine contemporary civil and military nuclear issues and are written by emerging experts from academia, government and industry who presented at the 2019 UK Project on Nuclear Issues (UK PONI) Annual Conference.
The UK has two options for modernising its armour: developing a Challenger 3 or procuring Leopard 2. The latter is an assured capability that will likely prove cheaper over the life of the programme. The former is risky but offers the UK an opportunity to develop valuable intellectual property.
A consistent feature of official UK positions after Brexit was enthusiasm for continued UK–Europe cooperation on defence and security matters. However, difficulties in the talks endanger both intergovernmental activities in this domain and the future of UK defence industrial capability.
The importance of space to the UK’s national security, military and international relationships means it should be a key issue in the upcoming Integrated Review. However, a shift in thinking on activities in this environment is needed to ensure that the right questions are being asked.