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The sharp disagreements over the Iraq War have had varying degrees of influence on European governments’ policies and, perhaps, on wider public opinion. Moreover, the actions of Muslims in Europe as a result of the war have led to yet another reappraisal of the place of Muslims in Western societies. This analysis will focus primarily on Britain, with its small but fast growing and assertive population whose government was the chief European proponent of the war, and to a lesser degree, France. The latter has a much larger Muslim population, and its government was the principal opponent of the war. The two countries are used as case studies to examine the dynamics between government and Muslim communities and assess how the two relate to each other when it comes to foreign, domestic and security policy.