In their own words, Pakistan’s generals lay-out the ‘Bajwa Doctrine’ – their vision for the future of US–Pakistani military cooperation in the age of President Trump. From their perspecitve, Pakistan has done more than enough to secure neighbouring Afghanistan, and is not intimidated by the threat of US funding cuts.
The military intervention of eight powers in China during the ‘Boxer Uprising’ of 1900-01 proved a major test in coalition warfare. Early political and naval unity when faced with potential disaster proved more difficult to replicate on land due to the absence of inter-Allied control mechanisms.
Coalition warfare was an inherent feature of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. While national histories tend to overlook this aspect, coalition diplomacy formed a crucial part of Britain’s war experience and the most important factor in the eventual victory at Waterloo.
British success in Malaya appeared to show how an insurgency could be defeated by Western-led forces. The campaign was plundered for ‘lessons’ – for Vietnam in particular. The latter’s failure, however, led critics to argue that Malaya was a special case which did not offer transferable ‘lessons’. An analysis of the general principles underlying British success in Malaya can nevertheless still...