Realising a new approach to Beijing following the Integrated Review will require policymakers to acknowledge the significant historical baggage that comes with policy design in this area. Avoiding these pitfalls will be integral to ensuring a clear-eyed strategy for China.
The incoming Biden administration will face a difficult challenge to quickly implement a new US policy toward Iran. The most effective path will be to work with those who agree, and engage those who disagree, to develop and reach their policy goals.
Joe Biden is likely to follow a trajectory of path dependency in the Middle East, by leading from behind, delegating rather than implementing, being disruptive rather than constructive, and thus protracting conflict resolutions.