Building the next cyber security strategy must go beyond domestic resilience to address international dynamics. And doing so will require an articulation of a vision about what kind of cyberspace it tries to shape worldwide.
Western governments are shedding their inhibitions about naming and shaming states suspected of infiltrating their critical national infrastructure. This is a good step, but should be just the beginning.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming a decisive force in the international security environment, with the potential to transform everything from information operations to intelligence analysis to mission planning. Whether NATO takes a unified approach to AI or not is a crucial question for the Alliance to consider.
The recent execution of chemical attacks by Moscow, Damascus and Pyongyang for diverse purposes may not only suggest that the prohibitive power of international conventions is now fading away, but also signals the emergence of a new class of states who can deploy a credible chemical threat.
Finding, striking, jamming, blocking, sustaining, and generally being disruptive, are all now realistic outputs from UAS. Given these multiple potential and proven uses for UAS even by non-state actors, the military conversation has very much moved on to how to counter them.