This Occasional Paper aims to provide an in-depth inventory of armed drones possessed by Middle Eastern states, assessing quantity, types and timeframes; and to explore where and how armed drones have been used so far, to assess whether and how countries' practices and ethical considerations around airpower and airstrikes are affected.
The uproar in the wake of the death of Jamal Khashoggi inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul continues unabated. France, Germany and the UK are coordinating their responses, and are adopting a different approach from that of the US. But what are the considerations governing any action?
For all the Sturm und Drang over the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran, neither side has answered the crucial question the Trump administration faces if it abrogates the deal: ‘And then what?’